General Information

Show all Crosby Lifting and Rigging Equipment.

All products manufactured by The Crosby Group Inc. are sold with the express understanding that the purchaser is thoroughly familiar with the safe and proper use and application of the product. Responsibility for the use and application of the products rests with the user. The Crosby Group disseminates products warnings and end user application information through various channels. In addition, Crosby provides formal product training seminars and our engineering personnel are readily available to answer your technical questions. For more information read the Crosby General Catalog, available from SELS on 01977684600.

Failure of the product can occur due to misapplication, abuse, or improper maintenance. Product failure could allow the load to become out of control, resulting in possible property damage, personal injury or death. There are numerous government and industry standards that cover products made by Crosby. This catalog makes no attempt to reference all of them. We do reference the standards that are most frequently asked about.

Ratings shown in Crosby Group literature are applicable only to new or “in as new” condition products.

Load Limit ratings indicate the greatest force or load a product can carry under usual environmental conditions. Shock loading and extraordinary conditions must be taken into account when selecting products for use in a system. In general, the products displayed in Crosby Group literature are used as parts of a system being employed to accomplish a task. Therefore, we can only recommend within the Working Load Limits, or other stated limitations, the use of products for this purpose.

The Working Load Limit, or Design Factor, or Efficiency Rating of each Crosby product may be affected by wear, misuse, overloading, corrosion, deformation, intentional alteration, and other use conditions. Regular inspection must be conducted to determine whether use can be continued at the catalog assigned WLL, a reduced WLL, or whether the product must be withdrawn from service.

Facts, Notes and Warnings

  • Crosby Group products generally are intended for tension or pull. Side loading must be avoided, as it exerts additional force or loading which the product is not designed to accommodate.
  • Welding Crosby load support parts or products can be hazardous. Knowledge of materials, heat treatment, and welding procedures are necessary for proper welding. Crosby Group should be consulted for information.
  • The assigned Ultimate Load Rating of Crosby Group products for the reeving of wire, manila, or synthetic rope is based upon design; the catalog ultimate strength for the rope parts, when totaled, may exceed the assigned Ultimate Load Rating.
  • The Working Load Limit of a sling must not exceed the lowest Working Load Limit of the components in the system.
  • The recommended Proof Load on all items in this catalog is 2 times the Working Load Limit unless otherwise shown.
  • Products that Crosby intends for swaging are identified in this catalog. For proper swaging machine training, operations and die selection, refer to specific product section in this manual. To develop other product for swaging requires knowledge of materials, heat treatment, product design, die design and performance of the final product.
  • Use only new genuine Crosby parts as replacements when servicing or repairing Crosby products.
  • Crosby products are to be considered as sparking, unless otherwise noted.
  • Product Label Replacement - In accordance with ANSI535.4-1991, “Product Safety Labels” should be periodically inspected and cleaned.
  • “Product Safety Labels” should be replaced when they are no longer legible. Current Crosby warning and application labels, for applicable products, are available from The Crosby Group, Inc.
  • Two decimal and fractional dimensions shown in catalog are intended as nominal dimensions only. If three decimal dimensions are shown, contact Crosby for tolerance information.

Low Temperature Service

Crosby forged and cast steel products can be used in general service conditions down to temperatures of -40° F (-40° C). At temperatures from 0° F to -40° F (-18° C to -40° C), good rigging practice requires special attention in the following areas.

  • Lifting should be performed at a steady rate. Shock loading should be avoided.
  • Equipment containing bearings should have increased inspection and maintenance schedule, and may require special lubrication.
  • All lifting equipment should be given a thorough visual inspection before each lift.
  • Remove nicks, gouges, or cracks by grinding (5% maximum material removal).
  • Do not use fittings that have been welded or modified after leaving the factory.
  • If determined to be necessary by the user, lifting equipment should undergo periodic inspection by dye penetrant or magnetic particle surface inspection.
  • For operation at temperatures below -40° F (-40° C), consider “Cold Tuff” products or contact Crosby Engineering.

Elevated Temperature Service

Crosby forged and cast steel products can be used in general service conditions up to temperatures of 400° F (204° C). The following should be considered when operating up to temperatures of 400 ° F (204° C).

  • Products that contain non-ferrous materials, and lubricants, plastics, etc. may be adversely affected by high temperatures, and typically should not exceed 200° F (93° C).
  • Galvanized, plated or painted fittings may suffer some or total degradation of the surface finish.
  • Extended exposure to elevated temperatures can cause severe surface scaling and significant permanent reduction of properties.
  • Repeated heating and cooling to room temperatures can result in temper embrittlement.

All information above refers to Crosby General Catalogue 2009 Page 1, and previously to Crosby General Catalogue 2006 Page 1.

Glossary

Static Load

The load resulting from a constant applied force or load.

Working Load Limit

The maximum mass or force which the product is authorized to support in general service when the pull is applied in-line, unless noted otherwise, with respect to the centerline of the product. This term is used interchangeably with the following terms:

  1. WLL
  2. Rated Load Value
  3. Resultant Working Load

Working Load

The maximum mass or force which the product is authorized to support in a particular service.

Proof Load

The average force applied in the performance of a proof test; the average force to which a product may be subjected before deformation occurs.

Proof Test

A test applied to a product solely to determine injurious material or manufacturing defects.

Ultimate Load

The average load or force at which the product fails or no longer supports the load.

Shock Load

A force that results from the rapid application of a force (such as impacting or jerking) or rapid movement of a static load. A shock load significantly adds to the static load.

Design Factor

An industry term denoting a product’s theoretical reserve capability; usually computed by dividing the catalog ultimate load by the Working Load Limit. Generally expressed as a ratio, e.g., 5 to 1.

Commercial Surface Factor

The surface condition of the products shown in this catalog. The surface condition associated with the normal methods of production of raw material and machined surfaces. More refined surface qualities are considered as special.

Fatigue Rated

Tested to a minimum standard of 20,000 cycles at 1.5 times the Working Load Limit. Will meet the requirements of the Euronorm standards for fatigue.

Adjusted Working Load Limit

The reduced maximum mass or force which the product is authorized to support for specific non-standard loading applications.

All information above refers to Crosby General Catalogue 2009 Page 2, and previously to Crosby General Catalogue 2006 Page 2.

Limited Warranty

Purchaser and Crosby expressly agree that Crosby’s warranty with respect to sale of its products is LIMITED solely to Crosby’s choice of repair, replacement or refund of the purchase price of any product or part thereof determined by Crosby to be defective within the first 12 months following the transfer of title of the product from Crosby to the purchaser. Purchaser and Crosby expressly agree that upon termination of the aforementioned 12 month period, the purchased product carries no warranty whatsoever. Purchaser and Crosby expressly agree that the remedies provided in this section are the purchaser’s exclusive remedies in connection with the purchase or use of the product. Purchaser and Crosby expressly agree that in no event shall Crosby be liable for any incidental or consequential damages in connection with the purchase or use of the product.

ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, INCLUDING EXPRESS WARRANTIES AND THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE HEREBY DISCLAIMED. PURCHASER HEREBY WAIVES ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, RIGHTS AND REMEDIES ARISING BY LAW OR OTHERWISE INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, EXPRESS WARRANTIES, THE IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES ARISING FROM COURSE OF PERFORMANCE, COURSE OF DEALING OR USAGE OF TRADE, AND IMPLIED WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. ADDITIONALLY, CROSBY HEREBY DISCLAIMS ANY OF ITS OBLIGATIONS OR LIABILITIES ARISING FROM STATUTE, WARRANTY, CONTRACT, TORT OR NEGLIGENCE.

Complete Agreement: This Warranty between purchaser and Crosby is complete. All prior or contemporaneous discussions, representations and/or understanding are merged into this Warranty. All prior or contemporaneous agreements between the parties are superseded by this Warranty. Choice of Law: Any dispute about the interpretation of this Warranty shall be governed by the laws of the State of Oklahoma. Resolution of Disputes: Purchaser and Crosby expressly agree that any dispute arising out of the purchase, use or operation of the purchased product shall, upon written notice to the other party, be resolved through binding arbitration. The arbitration shall be governed by the then existing rules of the American Arbitration Association. The location of any arbitration shall be Tulsa, Oklahoma. The substantive laws of the State of Oklahoma shall govern the arbitration to the extent they are not in conflict with the then existing rules of the American Arbitration Association. In no event shall Crosby be liable for incidental or consequential damages as part of the arbitration award. The award, decision, or filing rendered by the arbitration shall be final, and judgment may be entered upon it in accordance with the applicable law in any court having appropriate jurisdiction.

All information above refers to Crosby General Catalogue 2009 Page 2, and previously to Crosby General Catalogue 2006 Page 2.

Commonly Used Symbols

Abbreviations

C - Carbon, A - Alloy, B - Bronze, SS - Stainless Steel, S or SC - Self Colored, Painted or Oiled, G - Coated for corrosion protection; may include Hot Dip galvanizing, electrolytic depositing, dimetcoted, impact galvanizing, spraying, etc.

All ratings given in tons refer to short tons of 2,000 lbs. Ratings given in metric tons equal 2,204 lbs., and are mentioned as “tonnes” (t).

Hot Dip galvanized Crosby products meet or exceed ASTM A 153 requirements.

Crosby Symbols and Explanations

Quic Check

QUIC-CHECK®

  • A patented concept developed by Crosby’s Research and Development Department which represents Crosby’s ongoing commitment to Quality.
  • QUIC-CHECK® incorporates the strategic placement of marking indicators on traditional rigging products to indicate reference points designed to enhance the safe and proper use of Crosby products.
  • U.S. Patents 5,193,480 & 5,103,755 and foreign equivalents.
Load Rated

Load Rated®

A registered Crosby trademark that identifies products that have the Working Load Limit indicated or affixed to it.

Fatigue Rated

Fatigue Rated®

A registered Crosby trademark that identifies products that have proven to provide improved fatigue life (fatigue resistance) in actual use.

QT - Quenched and Tempered

Quenched and Tempered®

A registered Crosby trademark identifying product that is heat treated utilizing Crosby’s perfected quench and tempering methods.

Max Tough

MAXTOUGH®

A registered Crosby trademark identifying products that are statistically verified to meet or exceed impact values of 31 ft-lbs. at -4° F (42 Joules at -20° C) based on a high level of confidence. The confidence level is an index of certainty. MAXTOUGH is another Value-Added benefit of The Crosby Group.

Type Approved

Type Approved

A symbol that identifies products that have been Type Approved by various third party organizations. Meeting a standard can be declared as a result of “TYPE APPROVAL” by a third party organization. Type Approval requires: (1) A TYPE APPROVAL CERTIFICATE that verifies that the product design complies with the referenced standard(s) and, (2) A (MSA) MANUFACTURING SURVEY that verifies that the manufacturing location has been verified as capable of making the product. • A PRODUCT CERTIFICATE must be made available that vertifies that the product shipped meets the requirements of the TYPE APPROVAL and MSA. This product certificate must reference a serial number or P.I.C. and is issued for each product produced.

RFID Equipped

RFID Equipped

Products containing this logo are RFID Equipped and are designed to be used with the Crosby QUIC-CHECK® Inspection and Identification System.

All information above refers to Crosby General Catalogue 2009 Page 3, and previously to Crosby General Catalogue 2006 Page 3.

Crosby's Quality Continuum.

When you read on a contract the statement “Crosby or Equal”, you owe it to yourself and the personnel that will be using the product to understand that there is no equal to Crosby...

The Market Leader: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

When you read on a contract the statement “Crosby or Equal”, you owe it to yourself and the personnel that will be using the product to understand that there is no equal to Crosby. The following information has been designed to help you determine the many “Value Added” features of Crosby products that are the foundation for the performance characteristics and technical support required from a quality manufacturer. You will see from the following information that “When buying Crosby, you’re buying more than product, you’re buying Quality”.

Engineering Excellence

The majority of Crosby’s products are “Heat Treated”. The “Heat Treatment” allows the product to deform if overloading occurs, giving warning before ultimate failure. An “As-Forged”, or non-heat treated product, will break with little or no warning. This is called a “Catastrophic Failure”, and is a result of brittleness or lack of toughness in the non-heat treated product as compared to the “Heat Treated” product.

Quality Control

The majority of the steel purchased by Crosby is isolated from production until approved by our metallurgical lab. Each product is individually “PIC Coded” (Product Identification Code) to allow traceability to its respective date of production and material certification. Durability

Competitor’s products cannot be substituted in place of Crosby’s just because they look alike. Crosby products are manufactured with the highest design factors in the industry. Crosby’s products are better able to withstand abusive field conditions because of the improved impact and fatigue characteristics designed into each item of our line.

Crosby recognizes the importance of all four of these essential properties in its products:

  • Working Load Limit
  • Ductility
  • Fatigue
  • Toughness

Recognized Dependability

Crosby is considered the standard of the industry, both nationally and internationally. This can be drawn from the fact that most contracts involving rigging products, in the U.S. and around the world, read “Crosby Only” or “Crosby or Equal".

Industry Education

Crosby has always been concerned that our users are knowledgeable with the installation, use, inspection, and maintenance of our products. Crosby offers a formal product instruction and warning program which includes such “Value Added” features as instruction sheets attached to individual items, comprehensive literature, and a video training program. A Technical Support Team is also ready to answer any questions in regard to our products or services. This instruction can be provided through training seminars and on-site engineering applications. These services provide important benefits, such as accident prevention which results in lower costs of doing business for our customers.

Customer Service

The phrase Customer Service at Crosby means more than just having the product available when you need it. Customer Service also means having a full time, knowledgeable District Sales Representative available to serve you. It also means having a well trained and fully equipped Customer Service Department, a broad product line offering, 3200 Authorized Crosby distributors worldwide, and a Technical Support Team second to none. Finally, Customer Service means having a management team dedicated to ensure the previously mentioned services run smoothly so that your needs are met.

All information above refers to Crosby General Catalogue 2009 Page 13, and previously to Crosby General Catalogue 2006 Page 9.

Crosby’s Quality Continuum is a symbol identifying six segments of our business, that when viewed as one, differentiates us in the marketplace.

The Quality Continuum
The Value Added Features

MANUFACTURING

Manufacturing is the process of turning a raw material into a finished product. When it comes to manufacturing, The Crosby Group has extensive and unique capabilities that equip it with the tools needed to provide the quality and type of fittings and blocks needed by our customers. Modern facilities and up to date processes support the manufacturing of our products within Crosby, by Crosby employees. Our Product Identification Code traces the manufacturing process from raw material to production, helping to insure that the proper controls are maintained.

  • Modern facilities and state of the art processes that support the manufacture of our products.
  • Extensive and unique capabilities that equip us with the tools needed to provide the quality and type of fittings and blocks needed by you, the customer.
  • Traceability of each product through the manufacturing process (from raw material to production) with our Product Identification Code (P.I.C.) System which helps to insure that the proper controls are maintained.  

RISK MANAGEMENT

Risk management is the practice of controlling or managing the factors of uncertain hazards. To Crosby, risk management requires that the risks of doing business must be reduced by concrete steps that have an impact throughout the business, from the manufacturer to user. Training and formal Product Warnings are major tools that Crosby has made available to support this effort.

  • Comprehensive product literature.
  • Formal product instruction and warning program available to all users of Crosby products.
  • Many products are individually bagged or tagged with product warning and proper application information. • Training videos are available on several subjects.
  • Crosby Product Training Seminars are available to users.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Research and Development is the ongoing effort to realize the potential of improved products resulting from scholarly and scientific investigation. At Crosby, our research and development is focused by our staff who draw upon the state of the art facilities available in our centralized laboratory in Tulsa, OK.

  • Development of manufacturing processes for improved product performance.
  • Enhanced material toughness and properties through the selection of raw material and proper metallurgical processing.
  • Support of the effort to provide more efficient product design utilizing less raw material and common design.

COMPLETE PRODUCT LINE

Crosby is a world wide company that is the premier source of blocks and fittings for the lifting and material handling industries. As a single source, Crosby offers a full line of products that is the broadest selection available to the lifting and materials handling industries.

  • Scaffold pulleys to the largest lifting tackle in the world.
  • Forged Wire Rope Clips from 1/8" to 3".
  • Shackles from 1/3 tons to 1200 tons.
  • A variety of hooks from 1/3 ton to 300 tons.
  • A complete assortment of links, rings, forged swivels and thrust bearing swivels.
  • Product available in both carbon steel and alloy steel.
  • Roll Forged sheaves to “Cold Tuff” sleeves and other swaging products.
  • Custom designed products to meet your specific needs.

CUSTOMER SERVICE

“Customer Service is what the customer says it is.” Crosby takes this definition seriously. We recognize that customer service begins with availability of product, order placement and tracking, and accurate information. But at Crosby we KNOW that Customer Service is more than just having the product available when you need it. It is the company wide effort required to drive the organization to discover and meet our customer’s expectations.

  • Full time, knowledgeable District Sales Representatives.
  • A well trained and fully equipped Customer Service Department which can address standard products.
  • An Engineered Products Group that coordinates customer’s special needs from design through manufacturing and application.
  • A Technical Support Team ready to explain our products and service.
  • A Management Team dedicated to the principle that “Customer Service is what the customer says it is.”

ENGINEERING

Engineering is the application of scientific principles to practical ends in the design, construction and use of equipment and systems. Crosby engineers its products to perform. The application of finite element analysis is but one example of the engineering expertise available at Crosby that has resulted in Crosby being considered the standard of the industry, nationally and internationally.

  • Proper selected material and heat treatment process that allows for superior strength and impact and fatigue performance.
  • Active participants in professional societies and committees including ASTM, CVSA, API, ASME/ANSI.
  • Extensive expertise in computer aided design (CAD), Finite Element Analysis, Non-destructive Testing and Failure Analysis of Products.
  • ISO 9001 Certified.

All information above refers to Crosby General Catalogue 2009 Page 14, and previously to Crosby General Catalogue 2006 Page 10.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the Crosby Quality Continuum?

The Crosby Quality Continuum is a symbol that identifies six segments of Crosby’s business, that when viewed as one, differentiates Crosby from the competition in the marketplace. The six (6) segments are Customer Service, Engineering, Manufacturing, Risk Management, Research and Development and a Complete Product Line.

What is the Communication System?

The Crosby Communication System is a systematic effort to convey the positive aspects, or Value Added features of the Quality Continuum (big red Q), to the marketplace.

Who is the audience for the Crosby Communication system?

The Crosby Communication System recognizes its audience as including: Crosby employees, Authorized Crosby Distributors, End Users of Crosby, and Institutional buyers or standards setting organizations.

What are some of the resources available?

The Crosby Communication System can successfully draw upon the many skilled and knowledgeable people within Crosby, our Video Training Programs, the product bulletins, Crosby product literature, and the product presentations that have been prepared.

What type of training is available?

Comprehensive product training is available on nearly all Crosby product lines. Customized training on other products can also be made available. In addition, training is available on the fundamentals that support Crosby’s product performance, including product warnings, heat treatment, materials, and product identification.

How can this help the user of Crosby products?

Crosby’s users can benefit from the Crosby Communication System by recognizing the impact that Crosby’s Value Added features can have on employee skills, employee safety, worker compensation costs, productivity, insurance premiums, and the ability to meet OSHA and others standards.

How did these concepts develop through the years?

Crosby has always been concerned that our users be knowledgeable about the installation, use, inspection, and maintenance of our products. It was in 1987 that Crosby developed the theme “If it’s Crosby, It’s Quality” to highlight the Quality built into the full line of products. This evolved into the Quality Continuum concept in 1988 and 1989, when we recognized that: “When buying Crosby, you’re buying more than product, you’re buying Quality,” and in 1990 the Crosby Communication System was formalized.

Alloy information above refers to Crosby General Catalogue 2009 Page 15, and previously to Crosby General Catalogue 2006 Page 11.

Product Identification

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

The most effective method of assuring that the product you are purchasing is as reliable as possible is to purchase components supplied by companies of known reputation who maintain consistent and adequate quality. The company should clearly mark its components and finished products with the company name or logo, the component size or working load limit, and a code that is actively used by the manufacturer to control material and processes.

COMPETITION

CROSBY

Ask: Do they have a traceability system? Ask: If yes, is their traceability system also utilized for cast fittings, swage fittings and all load-bearing components?

Crosby forges the Product Identification Code (PIC), each item’s size or Working Load Limit (or a cross-reference code to working load limit) and “Crosby” or its logo into each product.

MATERIAL TRACEABILITY

A forged in identification code should be used to record the material grade and origin. This record should trace the material to the heat lot of material of steel as rolled at the supplying mill. Verification checks of all materials purchased for forging must be done to insure that the steel supplied meets the specifications required. This verification should be traceable by a forged in product identification code. In summary, the source and verification of material actually used in each forging must be able to be determined through appropriate documentation.

Ask: Do they have a permanently marked code in each product that traces material back to a verified certification? Ask: Do they test each heat of steel with their own testing facilities?

Crosby uses the Product Identification Code (PIC) to maintain material control from the steel mill, to receipt at our plant, to verification, and throughout the manufacturing process. Crosby can provide certified material analysis for each production lot, traceable by the Product Identification Code (PIC). Crosby, through its own laboratory, verifies the analysis of each heat of steel. Crosby purchases only special bar forging quality steel with specific cleanliness requirements and guaranteed hardenability.

MANUFACTURING CONTROL

The permanent identification code should be used to maintain a record of which manufacturing facility produced the product as well as the approximate production dates. All quality records should reference the product identification code so that a history can be maintained. All product performance testing for audit and engineering purposes should also reference the product identification code.

Ask: Do their products have a permanent code that is used to maintain control as product is manufactured?

Crosby uses the Product Identification Code (PIC) to maintain control of its products as they are manufactured.

PERFORMANCE AND APPLICATION DATA

Detailed performance, application, and warning information will assist you in the proper use of products. This information is most effective when provided in supporting brochures and engineering information. An identification marking must be used to reference this information by use of a cross-reference between the product code and the literature. Proper performance data should include each item’s working load limit, proof load and design factor. It should also include the item’s manufacturing processes, such as heat treatment and galvanizing, and list any specification the product meets or exceeds.

Ask: What performance and application information do they provide? Ask: Are there markings in products to aid in the proper use of the fitting? Ask: Is a comprehensive product warning system provided? Ask: What training support is provided?

Crosby provides a detailed catalog that comprehensively describes each product’s performance. The Crosby Product Warning System provides detailed application and warning information on selected products. In addition, training seminars and videos are also available. Selected products incorporate markings forged into the product to aid in the proper use of the fitting.

All information above refers to Crosby General Catalogue 2009 Page 18, and previously to Crosby General Catalogue 2006 Page 14.

Identification and Labeling on the Product by Product Groups

  Crosby Logo Size Working Load Limit Rated in Metric Tons (t) Product Identification Code Serial Number QUIC-CHECK® Markings QUIC-CHECK® RFID Equipped
SHACKLES X X X X X   X 25t and larger
SHANK HOOKS X Both size and working load limit are identified with a frame size that can be referenced back to our literature. X X      
EYE HOOKS X X X X X      
OTHER FORGED HOOKS X X     X   S-322  
SNATCH BLOCKS X X X X X*     4-1/2” and larger
CROSBY CLIPS X X     X*      
FIST GRIPS CLIPS X X     X      
TURNBUCKLES X X     X      
LOAD BINDERS X X X   X      
EYE BOLTS X X     X      
LINKS X X     X   X  
TAPERED SWIVEL BEARINGS X X   X X      
CHAIN COMPONENTS X X     X      
SWAGE SOCKETS X X     X   X  
SLEEVES & BUTTONS X X     X      
380 BLOCK McKissick X X   X X   X
680 BLOCK McKissick X X   X X   X
OIL FIELD McKissick X X   X X   X
750 BRIDGE CRANE BLOCKS McKissick X X X   X   X
SHACKLES CT & 2160 X X X X X X CT Only X
SWIVEL HOIST RINGS X X X Selected Sizes X     X
ELIMINATOR CHAIN X X     X   X  
LIFTING CLAMPS X X X X   X   X
ANGULAR CONTACT SWIVEL BEARINGS X X  X   X      

All information above refers to Crosby General Catalogue 2009 Page 19, and previously to Crosby General Catalogue 2006 Page 15.

Heat Treatment

HEAT TREATMENT The heat treatment of steel is an ancient art science that dates back to the Iron Age. When strength and hardness of steel were needed, heat treatment provided the answer. Today the heat treatment of steel has been refined to a sophisticated science. It is now possible to greatly enhance the strength, ductility, and resilience of steel through a properly controlled heat treatment process. The “as forged” fitting results in variability that is detrimental in applications that require toughness. Normalizing, spheroidized annealing, and quench and tempering are heat treat processes. Proper heat treatment eliminates the risk of cooling variation at the forging process. This is true of all steels regardless of material grades. COMPETITION CROSBY
Ask: Are load bearing fittings heat treated? Ask: If so, what type of heat treat process is used? Some supply critical fittings in an “as forged” or “as cast” condition. Crosby has fully qualified heat treat operations at its plants. Utilizing these facilities, Crosby heat treats all fittings that are load bearing components. Crosby minimizes risk by the effective heat treatment of its fittings. Heat treatment is an essential element of Crosby’s Risk Management Program. We do not take shortcuts for the sake of cutting cost. For the benefit of reducing cost, a non heat treated product compromises the performance ability of the product. In addition, Crosby’s metallurgical laboratory provides the support needed to assure the results.
QUENCHED AND TEMPERED Quenching and Tempering of steel has been found to be the heat treatment best suited to fully develop the strength and enhance the grain flow of carbon and alloy forgings. The quenched and tempered product will deform before ultimate failure, thus giving warning. The quenching process is rapid cooling in water or oil, after heating, to form a strong but brittle structure. The tempering process is the reheating of the steel to obtain the desired strength while increasing the ductility and toughness. Quench and tempering provides the consistency of performance needed by all critical applications, especially overhead lifting. Ask: What products do they quench and temper? Ask: Are their products that are exposed to high stress quenched and tempered? Ask: If not, why are they willing to accept inferior impact and toughness properties of non quenched and tempered products. Many normalize their forgings, but do not quench and temper. Crosby fittings which are exposed to high stress applications and designed as load bearing elements are quenched and tempered. The Quench and Tempering process is the most consistent method of assuring that every fitting performs as needed, especially in overhead lifting.
MATERIAL CONTROL The proper heat treatment of forged fittings depends on the appropriate selection of materials and use of heat treat procedures. Fine grained, special bar forging quality steel of specific cleanliness requirements and guaranteed hardenability in the appropriate grades must be used. Proper selection of steel is NOT ENOUGH, however. The control and management of these steels, from purchase through the entire manufacturing process, is essential to assure that the proper results are attained in the designated product. This control should utilize a production traceability program. Ask: Do they have identification code forged into the product that traces material back to verified certification? Ask: Are all heat records maintained by the traceability code? Most do not provide traceability of material. Crosby uses the Product Identification Code (P.I.C.) for material control from receipt and verification of steel, and throughout the entire manufacturing process. Crosby can provide certified material analysis for each production lot. PIC Product Identification Code
ULTIMATE STRENGTH, DUCTILITY, IMPACT, AND FATIGUE PROPERTIES The mechanical properties of steel when a load is very rapidly applied is known as its impact strength. Forged fittings must be able to have impact strengths that match the requirements of their application, especially in cold temperatures. The ability of a steel to withstand repeated applications of a load is measured by fatigue testing. The proper heat treatment of forgings, which includes quenching and tempering, can develop these properties to their desired level in a consistent and reliable manner. The ability to perform when overloaded is known as ductility. Ask: Are the products designed and manufactured with considerations for strength, fatigue, impact, and ductility? Some do not utilize materials that have good impact and fatigue properties. Crosby’s product line benefits from the selection of steel and the heat treatment process that allows for superior strength, ductility, impact, and fatigue performance. The product deforms if overloaded, giving warning before ultimate failure. All of these properties are essential if the product is to perform time after time. They are also important to assure that the inspection criteria set forth by ANSI will effectively monitor the ability of the fitting to continue in service.

All information above refers to Crosby General Catalogue 2009 Page 20, and previously to Crosby General Catalogue 2006 Page 16.

Heat Treatment by Product Groups

PRODUCT HEAT TREATMENT
SHACKLES Bows - Quenched and Tempered Pins - Quenched and Tempered
EYE HOOKS Quenched and Tempered
SHANK HOOKS Quenched and Tempered
LINKS Quenched and Tempered
RINGS Quenched and Tempered
SWIVELS Quenched and Tempered
TURNBUCKLES All ends are Quenched and Tempered Bodies Normalized
PAD EYES Quenched and Tempered
EYE BOLTS Quenched and Tempered
LOAD BINDERS Quenched and Tempered
SWAGE SOCKETS Spheroidized Annealed
SWAGE SLEEVES Cold Tuff A proprietary heat treat process that maximizes swageability of the sleeve at low temperatures.
SPELTER SOCKETS Normalized

All information above refers to Crosby General Catalogue 2009 Page 21, and previously to Crosby General Catalogue 2006 Page 17.

Material Properties

PROCESS IS IMPORTANT

The material used in a forged fitting, such as carbon or alloy steel, determines the potential properties. The manufacturing processes determine what the properties will actually be. The material must be special bar forging quality steel and fine grained. The heating of steel to forging temperature must be properly controlled to insure that the steel is not “injured” by overheating. Proper forging equipment and techniques must be employed to assure proper material flow in the dies and tooling. The heat treatment process must be well defined and precisely controlled.

COMPETITION CROSBY

Ask: What processes do they consider important?

Ask: How do they select their material?

Ask: Is the steel fine grained?

Ask: Are standards established to insure sufficient cleanliness of the steel?

Crosby’s attention to material selection, forging techniques, machining, and heat treatment processes assures the properties required will be attained, thus providing superior performance of the product. Crosby has specific and demanding cleanliness requirements. Crosby provides a video on metallurgy that highlights these facts.

TENSILE STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY

The mechanical properties that are important when lifting a load under normal conditions are tensile strength and ductility. The ability to carry a load increases with the tensile (pulling) strength of the steel. The ability of steel to deform in an overload condition is known as its ductility. Both of these factors enter greatly into determining the working load limit of a forging. Ductility is measured by standard engineering tests of elongation and reduction of area. It is also measured by how much deformation the fitting incurs when overloaded. The tensile strength determines the actual working load, while ductility allows the product to deform significantly when overloaded, thus giving warning before ultimate failure.

Ask: Do they have an active program to determine tensile and ductility properties?

Ask: Are testing audits performed continuously on all products?

Ask: Is the actual deformation of a fitting when overloaded a major consideration for their shackles?

Crosby has an active program to determine tensile and ductility properties. Testing audits are continuously performed on all products. Crosby’s design philosophy considers the deformation of a fitting when loading is a key requirement.

FATIGUE PROPERTIES

The mechanical properties of steel when a load is repeatedly applied is known as its fatigue strength. Fatigue testing determines the ability of a material to withstand repeated applications of a load. The load by itself may be too small to produce a failure. There are three factors involved when considering fatigue strength. They are: the number of cycles at which a crack initiates, the number of cycles at which the crack starts to grow, and the number of cycles at which the fitting fails. One accepted method of fatigue rating fittings is to test them to 1-1/2 times the working load limit for 20,000 cycles, without failure. This standard test is accepted as indicating indefinite life when used within the working load limit under normal circumstances.

Ask: Does the material selection process recognize fatigue properties?

Ask: Do they have an active program to “design in” and test fatigue properties?

Ask: Is there a program in place to fatigue rate all load bearing products that are used in critical applications?

Crosby has an active program to determine fatigue properties. Included in this program is the use of finite element design methods to predict possible weak areas, which in turn allows us to design in superior fatigue properties. Crosby specifies material of specific cleanliness and guaranteed hardenability which enhances fatigue. Crosby designs and manufactures its products with fatigue in mind. Crosby has a program in place that will result in all load bearing products used in critical applications being fatigue rated.

IMPACT PROPERTIES

The mechanical properties of steel when a load is very rapidly applied is known as its impact strength. Impact tests are made by applying a sudden load to a test piece and measuring the energy absorbed when the specimen breaks. The “tougher” the material the greater the energy required to break the piece. A brittle piece can absorb virtually no energy upon breaking. The Charpy V Notched Impact test is one common method of performing the testing and measurement. Fittings must be able to have impact strengths that match the requirements of their application at all temperatures, even low temperatures commonly found in winter conditions. The difficulty of crack initiation and crack growth under impact is an important consideration.

Ask: Does the material selection process recognize impact properties?

Ask: Do they have an active program to perform actual testing of impact properties?

Ask: Do they recognize the need for good impact properties, i.e., the need for crack initiation and growth to be difficult throughout the normal operating temperature of 0° to 75° F (-20°C + 25°C)?

Crosby recognizes the importance of impact properties and has an active program to determine impact properties at various temperatures of each material used in the various heat treat conditions. Crosby products are designed to be used in a wide range of temperatures. Crosby specifies material of specific cleanliness and guaranteed hardenability which enhances fatigue and impact properties.

PERFORMANCE

Performance of a fitting requires a tensile strength that meets working load limits, ductility that allows deformation when overloaded, fatigue properties that support use time after time and impact properties that provide toughness. All of these properties are essential if the product is to perform time after time in adverse conditions. They are also important to assure that the inspection criteria set forth by ANSI will effectively monitor the ability of the fitting to continue in service.

Ask: Does the fitting have required tensile strength, ductility, fatigue and impact properties?

Ask: Are all the material properties met?

Crosby designs its fittings to include required working load limits and design factors. Equally important are the ductility, fatigue, and impact properties. Crosby provides you with material properties that minimize the risk of failure. No shortcuts in processing are made to save cost while sacrificing any of these performance elements.

All information above refers to Crosby General Catalogue 2009 Page 22, and previously to Crosby General Catalogue 2006 Page 18.

Material Properties by Product Group

PROPERTY DESCRIPTION PRODUCT GROUP
Tensile Strength Crosby can provide typical hardness, tensile, and typical yield strength values. Hooks, Shackles, Turnbuckles, and Chain Fittings
Ductility Crosby can provide typical reduction of area and elongation values upon special request. Hooks, Shackles, Turnbuckles, and Chain Fittings
Impact Properties Crosby’s quenched and tempered products have enhanced impact properties for greater toughness at all temperatures. If requested at the time of order, Crosby can provide Charpy impact properties. Hooks, Shackles, Turnbuckles, and Chain Fittings
Fatique Properties Crosby products are being designed to meet specific fatigue performance levels. If requested at the time of order, these fatigue properties can be provided. Hoist Hooks, Shackles, Eye Bolts, Turnbuckles, Swivel Hoist Rings, Chain Fittings and Snatch Blocks are Fatigue rated to 20,000 cycles at 1-1/2 times the Working Load Limit.
Proof Testing Proof testing and certification are furnished standard with some products. If requested at the time of order, proof testing certification can be provided on most of Crosby’s remaining product line, with the exception of products such as swage sockets and sleeves, spelter sockets, thimbles, etc. All Products
QC 1400 Audits Crosby’s QC 1400 program provides reduction of area, elongation values, as well as hardness, tensile, and yield strength values for each production lot of hoist hooks. These factors are traceable by the Product Identification Code (PIC) program. Hoist Hooks Only
Mag Certification, Ultra Sonic, X-ray, and Dye Penetrant Testing If requested at the time of order, different non-destructive testing and certification is available. All Products
Chemistry Analysis Each heat of steel is individually verified to confirm chemical analysis prior to manufacturing. All Products

All information above refers to Crosby General Catalogue 2009 Page 23, and previously to Crosby General Catalogue 2006 Page 19.


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